Periodontal Status as Mediator of the Association between Socioeconomic Status and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Pregnant Women

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  • Carine Sonego
  • Marta L. Musskopf
  • Rui V. Oppermann
  • Patricia Weidlich
  • Roger Keller Celeste


Objective: To test periodontal status as a mediator between socioeconomic status (SES) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL)
in pregnant women. Basic research design: Secondary cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomised clinical trial with 303
pregnant women. Main outcome measures: Demographic variables, SES, smoking, interproximal hygiene, and self-reported gingival bleeding were collected as independent variables. The Oral Health Impact Profile-14 was used to assess OHRQoL. The relationship between
SES, periodontal status and OHRQoL was investigated in structural equation modelling. Results: There was a moderate association of
SES with periodontal status (standardised coefficient SC = -0.26, p<0.01) and number of teeth (SC = 0.24, p<0.01). Periodontal status and
the number of teeth were also associated with OHRQoL (respectively, SC = 0.25, p<0.01 and SC = -0.31, p<0.01), but SES was only
indirectly related to OHRQoL (SC = -0.17, p<0.01). Socioeconomic inequalities in quality of life were mainly explained by the remaining
number of teeth, contributing to about 47%, and periodontal status, contributing to about 41%. Conclusions: There was no direct effect
of SES on OHRQoL in pregnant women. Periodontal status and missing teeth each explained almost half of the total indirect association.
Keywords: Quality of life, periodontal diseases, oral health, socioeconomic status

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